Here is some of the information I recently shared in the October newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This newsletter is focused on the fascia, myofascia and trigger point research. If you would be interested in receiving my other newsletters, which include links to the studies as well as special offers and sales coupons, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


  1. Strain/Counter-strain vs Ischemic Compression
  2. Effect of Myofascial Release and Muscle Stretching on pain
  3. Shock Wave Therapy vs Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition technique
  4. IASTM vs myofascial release therapy in chronic neck pain
  5. Effect of ISBT-Bowen Therapy in treatment of neck pain
  6. Pressure Algometer to identify Myofascail trigger points
  7. Correlation of myofascial trigger points with upper limb disability post mastectomy
  8. Effects of Foam Rolling on micro blood flow
  9. Effectiveness of Muscle Energy Techniques in relieving low back pain
  10. Myofascial Release vs Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation in chronic neck pain


1. An article titled Comparative Effects of Strain Counter-strain and Ischemic Compression Technique in Patients with Upper Trapezius Trigger Points, published in Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences in 2023 concludes: A 4-week intervention of the ischemic compression and strain counter-strain produced significant results in reducing the intensity of pain, the cervical disability and improving the cervical range of motion, but the intergroup comparison showed that both the ischemic compression and strain counter-strain were equally effective and none of them produced significant results as compared to others on patients with upper trapezius trigger points.

2.  An article titled Effect of Myofascial Release Technique and Muscle Stretching on Pain and Cervical Range of Motion in Upper Trapezius Myofascial Trigger Points, published in International Journal of Current Science in April 2023 concludes: Myofascial release technique is an effective therapeutic option in the treatment of active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscles.

3. A student dissertation titled Shock Wave Therapy versus Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique in Upper Trapezius Myofascial Trigger Points, published in Eur. Chem. Bull. May 2023 concludes:  In terms of pain intensity level, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and function ability level for the upper trapezius myofascial trigger point patients, Shock Wave Therapy shows more improvement than the Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique.

4. A study titled Instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization versus myofascial release therapy in the treatment of chronic neck pain: a randomized controlled trial, published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders in Jun 2023 concludes: This study showed insignificant differences between groups. However, we did not use a control group, indicating that the improvement in outcomes may not have been caused by the intervention.

5. A study titled The Effect of ISBT-Bowen Therapy in the Treatment of Myofascial Neck Pain—a Randomized, Single-Blinded Clinical Trial, published in Int J There Massage Bodywork in Jun 2023 concludes: This study confirmed the efficacy of ISBT-Bowen Therapy for patients with Myofascial Pain Syndrome. It alleviates pain, improves functional outcomes, enhances quality of life, and relieves mood symptoms.

6. A study titled Pressure Algometer: An Effective Diagnostic Tool to Identify Latent Myofascial Trigger Points, published in Special Issue of National Conference on Humanity and Social Sciences in Sept 2022 concludes:  …we observed that the pressure algometer is a very useful, reliable, and inexpensive device to identify myofascial trigger points as compared to ultrasonography. Many authors recommend using this device.

7.  A study titled Correlation of Myofascial Trigger Points with Upper Limb Disability in Post Mastectomy Females in Pakistan, published in Pakistan Journal of Rehabilitation in Feb 2023 concludes: …there is a highly significant relation between trigger points in muscles and disability of upper extremity in female patients after mastectomy.

8. A study titled Effects of foam rolling on vastus intermedius and lateralis microvascular blood flow, published in Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies in Jul 2023 concludes: The common assumption of intramuscular Micro Blood Flow improvement due to Foam Rolling could not be confirmed for up to 30 min after the intervention. If an increase in intramuscular metabolism or Micro Blood Flow is intended, we recommend that alternative methods (i.e., traditional warm-up) should be preferred.

9. A student dissertation titled The Effectiveness of Muscle Energy Techniques in Relieving Low Back Pain of Quadratus Lumborum Myofascial Origin, published in Eur. Chem. Bull in 2023 concludes: MET’s are an effective treatment for Lower Back Pain of the Quadratus Lumborum myofascial origin.

10. A student dissertation titled Myofascial Release versus Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation in Chronic Mechanical Neck Pain; A Randomized Controlled Trial, published in Eur. Chem. Bull in 2023 concludes:  Myofascial release is more beneficial than proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation regarding pain and disability and high upper trapezius pain pressure threshold while in suboccipital pain pressure threshold proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation was more effective after six sessions while after twelve sessions both techniques are equally effective. Regarding range of motion both techniques are equally effective except in right rotation: myofascial release was more effective.

Here is some of the information I recently shared in the September newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This newsletter is focused on the lymph system and lymphatic drainage. If you would be interested in receiving my other newsletters, which include links to the studies as well as special offers and sales coupons, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


  1. Lymphatic Function Decreases over time in arms on breast cancer patients
  2. Imaging of the Tricipital lymphatic pathway
  3. lymph vessels in superficial fascia of abdomen
  4. Axillo-inguinal lymphatic pathwars
  5. Manual Lymph Drainage vs Compression Bandage
  6. Kinesio tape for facial swelling following orthagnathic surgery


  1. The Lymphatic vascular system
  2. Meningeal lymphatics role


1. A study titled Lymphatic Function Decreases Over Time in the Arms on Breast Cancer Patients Following Treatment, published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Sept 2022 concludes: Lymphatic function in the ipsilateral arm deteriorated over time after adjuvant breast cancer therapy. Furthermore, the presence of abnormal torturous lymphatic vessels in asymptomatic arms appeared to be associated with weak lymphatic reserve pumping capacity.

2.  A study, titled Superficial and functional imaging of the tricipital lymphatic pathway: a modern reintroduction published in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment in Nov 2022 concludes: When present, the tricipital pathway coursed along the posterior upper arm with variability in its connections to the forearm distally, and the torso proximally. It may drain lymphatic fluid directly to the scapular lymph nodes, avoiding the axillary lymph node groups.

3. A study, Detection of Lymphatic Vessels in the Superficial Fascia of the Abdomen published in MDPI in March 2023 states: The evaluation of specific characteristics of cells, fibers, blood circulation, and innervation has shown that the superficial fascia has a clear and distinct anatomical identity, but knowledge about lymphatic vessels in relation to the superficial fascia has not been described. In the papillary dermis, a huge presence of lymphatic vessels was highlighted, parallel to the skin surface and embedded in the loose connective tissue. In the superficial adipose tissue, thin lymphatic vessels were found, close to the fibrous septa connecting the dermis to the deeper layers. The deep adipose tissue showed a comparable overall content of lymphatic vessels with respect to the superficial layer; they followed the blood vessel and had a larger diameter. In the superficial fascia, the lymphatic vessels showed higher density and a larger diameter, in both the longitudinal and transverse directions along the fibers, as well as vessels that intertwined with one another, forming a rich network of vessels.

4. A study titled The Prevalence of the Axillo-Inguinal Lymphatic Pathway in Lymphedema of the Extremities and Potential Therapeutic Implications published in Lymphatic Research and Biology in Mar 2023 states: The axillo-inguinal (or inguino-axillary) is a compensatory lymphatic drainage pathway regularly utilized by lymphedema therapists when applying manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) for upper and lower extremity lymphedema. The findings suggest that the axillo-inguinal pathway is an infrequent compensatory drainage pathway in lower extremity lymphedema and rare in upper extremity lymphedema

5. A study, The Effect of Manual Lymph Drainage and Compression Bandaging for Stage 2 Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: A Randomized Controlled Trial, published in Lymphatic Research and Biology in May 2023 concludes: MLD or CB alone could effectively reduce the volume of affected arms for patients with stage 2 BCRL, and CB also could reduce the LTW( Local tissue water) more significantly. CDT did not seem to show an extra advantage. Therefore, CB may be the first choice for stage 2 BCRL. But for patients who are unwilling or intolerant to CB, MLD can be selected.

6. A study titled The effects of Kinesio tapes on facial swelling following bimaxillary orthognatic surgery in the supraclavicular region, published in Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Jun 2023 concludes: As a result of taping lymphatic Kinesio tape on the affected area, tension was reduced, and lymphatic circulation was restored. Blood and lymph microcirculation was improved, enabling the body to heal itself.Kinesio tape reduced swelling after orthognathic surgery in a positive way.


  1. A great review of the lymphatic system and a deeper look at its function and structures. The lymphatic vascular system: much more than just a sewer in Cell & Bioscience Sept 2022.
  2. An article titled Meningeal lymphatics and their role in CNS disorder treatment: moving past misconceptions, published in Front Neurosci in Jul 2023 states: The central nervous system (CNS) was previously thought to lack lymphatics and shielded from the free diffusion of molecular and cellular components by the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB). However, recent findings have redefined the roles played by meningeal lymphatic vessels in the recruitment and drainage of lymphocytes from the periphery into the brain and the potentiation of an immune response. Emerging knowledge surrounding the importance of meningeal lymphatics has the potential to transform the treatment of CNS disorders. This review details the most recent understanding of the CNS-lymphatic network and its immunologic implications in both the healthy and diseased brain. Moreover, the review provides in-depth coverage of several exciting avenues for future therapeutic treatments that involve the meningeal lymphatic system.

Here is some of the information I recently shared in the August newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This newsletter is focused on cupping. If you would be interested in receiving my other newsletters, which include links to the studies as well as special offers and sales coupons, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


  1. Dry cupping effect on Chronic Knee Pain
  2. Cupping massage vs dry static cupping for musculoskeletal pain
  3. Cupping vs Kinesio-taping for carpal tunnel
  4. IASTM, electro dry needling, and cupping for Tennis Elbow
  5. Cupping vs integrated neuromuscular inhibition
  6. Anti-obesity effect of cupping
  7. Static vs Dynamic Decompression Muscle Power
  8. Compression vs decompression for low back pain


1. A study titled The Effect of Dry Cupping Therapy on Chronic Knee Pain and Activities of Daily Living in Elderly Women, published in Journal of Gerontology in Mar 2023 concludes: dry cupping therapy is effective in reducing chronic knee pain and increasing daily activities of elderly women.

2.  A study titled Effects of Dry Cupping Massage Compared to Static Dry Cupping on Musculoskeletal Pain: A Meta-Analysis, published in Fresno ProQuest Dissertations Publishing in 2023 concludes: The Visual Analogue Scale and Physical Component Score grand effect sizes were small and statistically insignificant while the Neck Disability Index had a large effect size favoring cupping massage. Therefore, we can conclude that there is no difference in effect between the 2 interventions on pain and quality of life. However, cupping massage appears to be superior to decreasing disability in the neck.

3. A study titled Comparison of 4 weeks of cupping and Kinesio-taping on clinical and ultrasound outcomes of carpal tunnel syndrome during pregnancy, published in Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies in Jul 2023 concludes: Both cupping and Kinesio-taping improved clinical and ultrasound outcomes of CTS. However, efficacy of cupping compared to Kinesio-taping was better in improvement of median nerve cross-sectional area at hamate hook and pisiform levels, symptoms severity scale, and functional status scale…

4. A study titled Effect of IASTM, Electro dry Needling, and Cupping Therapy in the Treatment of Tennis Elbow, published in International Journal of Development Research in April 2022 concludes: The combination of IASTM, electro dry needling and cupping therapy results in better improvement in Tennis Elbow treatment than conventional therapy, electro dry needling, and cupping therapy alone.

5. A study titled Effect of myofascial cupping vs integrated neuromuscular inhibition techniques on pain and neck movement in individuals with latent trigger point in trapezius, published in Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal in March 2023 concludes; Myofascial cupping was more effective than Integrated neuromuscular inhibition technique in improving pain. However, both interventions showed similar effects on pressure pain threshold and neck lateral flexion on latent TrP in the trapezius.

6. A study titled Systematic review and meta-analysis of the anti-obesity effect of cupping therapy published in Medicine in Jun 2023 concludes: Overall, our results show that cupping therapy can be used to treat obesity in terms of Body Weight, Body Mass Index, Hip Circumference, and Waist Circumference and is a safe intervention for the treatment of obesity

7.  A study titled Comparison of Static and Dynamic Myofascial Decompression on Gastrosoleus Muscle Power and Latent Trigger Point Pain in Normal Healthy Women, published in Medical Journal Of Dr. D.Y.Patil Vidyapeeth in Jun 2023 concludes: Static and Dynamic myofascial decompression are equally effective in reducing pain and improving gastro-soleus muscle power in subjects with latent trigger points. There was a sustained carry-over effect seen in the vertical jump height test in the dynamic myofascial decompression group after 5 days of intervention.

8.  A study titled Effects of Instrument-Assisted Compressive Versus Decompressive Myofascial Release in Patient with Non-Specific Low Back Pain, published in The Therapist in Jun 2023 concludes: Pain severity and disability score in the decompressive myofascial release group reduced significantly compared to the compressive myofascial release group at the end of the third week and first week respectively. Lumbar flexion and extension ROM improved significantly in the compressive release group as compared to the decompressive release group after 1 and 2 weeks respectively.

Here is some of the information I recently shared in the June newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This newsletter is focused on PTSD and trauma. This is the final newsletter on this topic. If you would be interested in receiving my other newsletters, which include links to the studies as well as special offers and sales coupons, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


  1. Emotional numbing in PTSD with lower reactivity to pain
  2. Forgetting of trauma-like event after hydrocortisone
  3. PTSD stress symptoms relationship to chronic pain
  4. Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy for treatment-resistant PTSD
  5. Effects of diet low in excitotoxins on PTSD
  6. Melatonin alleviates PTSD-like behaviors and restores serum GABA
  7. Comparing Service dogs vs Emotional support dogs
  8. PTSD-induced inflammation impacts cardiac homeostatsis


Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing part 1: theory, procedure, and use in PTSD


1. A research paper, titled Emotional numbing in PTSD is associated with lower amygdala reactivity to pain, published in Neuropsychopharacology in Aug 2022 concludes: …the PTSD group showed a robust reduction in amygdala reactivity to shock compared to the control group. Furthermore, amygdala activation was negatively correlated with emotional numbing severity. These patterns were unique to the amygdala, and did not appear in comparison to a control region, the insula, a pivotal region for the processing of pain. To conclude, amygdala response to pain is lower in individuals with PTSD, and is associated with emotional numbing symptoms. Lower amygdala reactivity to mild pain may contribute to the “all-or-none” reaction to stressful situations often observed in PTSD.

2.  A study titled Accelerated forgetting of a trauma-like event in healthy men and women after a single dose of hydrocortisone, published in Translational Psychiatry in Aug 2022, concludes: …participants receiving hydrocortisone showed a faster reduction in daily intrusion frequency. Voluntary memory was assessed once, at the end of the week, but was unaffected by hydrocortisone Exploratory analyses indicated sex-dependent associations between intrusions and baseline estradiol and progesterone levels. In men given hydrocortisone, higher baseline estradiol levels were associated with fewer intrusions, whereas women exhibited the opposite pattern. By contrast, progesterone levels were positively associated with intrusions only in men treated with hydrocortisone. The finding suggests that hydrocortisone promotes an accelerated degradation of sensory-perceptual representation underlying traumatic intrusive memories. In addition, while sex alone was not an important moderator, the combination of sex and sex-hormone levels influenced hydrocortisone’s effects on involuntary aversive memories

3. A study titled The role of post-trauma stress symptoms in the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain and disability: a systematic review, published in European Journal of Pain in Oct 2022 concludes: Findings support a clear relationship between PTSD post-injury and future pain/disability with the potential importance of certain PTSD clusters (hyper-arousal and numbing).

4. A study titled Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Veterans with Treatment-resistant PTSD: A longitudinal Follow-up Study, published in Military Medicine in November 2022 concludes: the beneficial clinical effects of HBOT are persistent and were not attenuated at long-term follow-up of about 2 years after completion of HBOT. Additional long-term effects of the treatment were observed in social function and in decreased medication use.

5. A research article titled Effects of a diet low in excitotoxins on PTSD symptoms and related biomarkers published in Nutritional Neuroscience in Dec 2022 concludes: while no serum biomarkers significantly changed post-diet (low glutamate), cortisol increased as dietary excitotoxin consumption decreased…reduced dietary excitotoxin consumption was also associated with reduced hyperarousal symptoms. Cortisol increase was associated with reduced avoidance symptoms…

6. A study titled Melatonin alleviates PTSD-like behaviors and restores serum GABA and cortisol levels in mice, published in Psychopharmacology in Jan 2023 concluded: melatonin has a potential therapeutic effect on PTSD-like symptoms and melatonin receptor 1 mediated the effect.

7.  A study titled Therapeutic and Economic Benefits of Service Dogs versus Emotional Support Dogs for Veterans with PTSD, published in Psychiatric Services in Jan 2023 concludes: both groups appeared to benefit from having a service or emotional support dog. No significant differences in improved functioning or quality of life were observed between the groups. Those in the service dog group had a greater reduction in PTSD symptoms and better antidepressant adherence.

8.  A study titled PTSD-induced inflammation negatively impacts cardiac homeostasis, published in Physiology in May 2023 concludes: PTSD-induced cardiac stress is leading to macrophage recruitment and cardiac fibrosis which likely over time will lead to deterioration of myocardial function.


An article titled Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: part 1 - theory, procedure and use in PTSD, published by Cambridge University Press in Jun 2022 “reviews the theory behind how EMDR works, how it is conducted, the evidence supporting its use in the treatment of PTSD and its approved indications and contraindications.”

Here is some of the information I recently shared in the March newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This newsletter is focused on cupping. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, which include links to the studies as well as special offers and sales coupons, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


  1. Effects of Massage and dry cupping on cardiac patients
  2. Influence of cupping on high-intensity anaerobic performance
  3. Dry cupping for plantar fasciitis
  4. Cup therapy for Hypertension
  5. Action of cupping therapy in lung injury
  6. Comparison of skin microneedling with cupping vs microneedling alone
  7. Cupping therapy on muscle tenderness in baseball players


1. A study titled Effect of Massage and Dry Cupping on Hemodynamic Parameters of Cardiac Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial published in Journal of Chiropractic Medicine in Mar 2023 concludes:  the mean systolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation level showed no significant difference among the 3 groups. Therefore, our study did not show effects of massage and dry cupping on regulating hemodynamic parameters.

2.  A study titled Influence of Cupping Treatment on High-intensity anaerobic performance, published in Kinesiology in 2022 focused on evaluating the efficacy of dry and wet cupping therapy on subsequent anaerobic performance. The study concludes: No significant correlations were detected. The findings demonstrate no beneficial effects of wet and dry cupping therapy and hence do not support its use prior to high-intensity anaerobic sports events.

3. A study titled Effectiveness of Dry Cupping as a Treatment for Plantar Fasciitis: A Critically Appraised Topic, published in Journal of Sport Rehabilitation in Oct 2022 concludes:  There is moderate evidence to support the use of dry cupping to improve pain and function in patients with plantar fasciitis.

4. A study titled Effectiveness of Cup Therapy on Reducing Blood Pressure in Hypertension Patients: A Literature Review, published in Scientific Proceedings of Islamic and Complementary Medicine, in 2022 concludes:  Cupping is effective in lowering blood pressure in patients with hypertension, with the type and point of effective cupping being wet cupping at the top of the head and neck.

5. A study titled Cupping alleviates lung injury through the adenosine/A2BAR pathway published in Heliyon in 2022 concludes:  Cupping attenuates lung inflammation and injury through the adenosine A2BAR pathway. The current study provides evidence-based information about cupping therapy in Acute Lung Injury.

6. A study titled Comparison of the Effects of Skin Microneedling with Cupping Therapy and Microneedling Alone: An Experimental Study, published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Jan 2023 concludes:  The addition of cupping therapy to microneedling increased the thickness of the epidermis and dermis.

7.  A study titled Effect of Cupping Therapy on Muscle Tenderness in Collegiate Baseball Players compared to Sham Treatment: A Randomized, Single-Blinded Trial, published in Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health  Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association in Feb 2023 concludes: a single 15-minutes cupping therapy treatment can decrease muscle tenderness at the triceps surae when compared to both a control and sham treatment conditions.

Here is some of the information I recently shared in the January newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This newsletter is focused on chronic pain and Fibromyalgia. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, which include links to the studies as well as special offers and sales coupons, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


  1. Hidden neural network in deep fasciae
  2. Manual therapy for temporomandibular joint dysfunction
  3. Effectiveness of strain-counterstrain vs muscle energy technique on neck pain
  4. Effect of dry needling on lumbar stiffness
  5. Anatomy review of deep fascia and its role in chronic pain
  6. Melatonin therapy in chronic pain syndrome
  7. Circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios effect on pain conditions
  8. Association of VItamin B12 with fatigue in fibromyalgia
  9. Neural changes after Emotional Freedom Technique reduces pain
  10. Effect of anti-inflammatory and low-FODMAP diet in fibromyalgia


1. An article titled Evidence of a new hidden neural network into deep fasciae, published in Scientific Reports in Jun 2021 states:  It is recognized that different fasciae have different type of innervation…in this work the aponeurotic thoracolumbar fascia and the epymisial gluteal fascia were analysed…with the aim to study the organization of nerve fibers, the presence of nerve corpuscles, and the amount of autonomic innervation. Based on the results, it is suggested that the two fasciae have different roles in proprioception and pain perception: the free nerve endings inside thoracolumbar fascia may function as proprioceptors, regulating the tensions coming from associated muscles and have a role in nonspecific low back pain, whereas the epymisial fasciae works to coordinate the actions of the various motor units of the underlying muscle.

2.  An article titled Effectiveness of Manual Therapy in Treating Myofascial Pain Related to Temporomandibular Dysfunction: Systemic Literature Review, published in International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science in Jun 2021 concludes:  Manual physical therapy is effective in the treatment of myofascial pain related to TMD. Thus, this treatment modality must be considered as one of the therapies in reducing muscle pain related to TMD.

3. An article titled Immediate Effect of Strain Counterstrain Technique versus Muscle Energy Technique on Upper Trapezius Tenderness in Non-Specific Neck Pain, published in International Journal of Science and Healthcare Research in Jun 2021 concludes:  Both techniques are equally effective in treating pain, increasing lateral flexion and rotation range of motion, and improving pain pressure sensitivity.

4. A review titled Effect of dry needling on lumbar muscle stiffness in patients with low back pain: A double blind, randomized controlled trial using shear wave elastography, published in Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy in Sept 2021 concludes: dry needling appears to reduce resting erector spine muscle stiffness following treatment of patients with LBP.

5. An anatomy review, published in Clinical Anatomy in Apr 2022, titled The deep fascia and its role in chronic pain and pathological conditions: A review states: The deep fascia is a three-dimensional continuum of connective tissue surrounding the bones, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels throughout our body. Its importance in chronically debilitating conditions has recently been brought to light. We find that five main deep fasciae pathologies are: chronic low back pain, chronic neck pain, Dupuytren’s disease, plantar fasciitis, and iliotibial band syndrome. The corresponding fasciae are respectively the thoracolumbar fascia, the cervical fascia, the palmar fascia, the plantar fascia, and the iliotibial tract. Pathological fascia is characterized by increased tissue stiffness along with alterations in myofibroblast activity and the extra-cellular matrix, both in terms of collagen and Matrix Metalloproteases (MMP) levels. Innervation changes such as increased density and sensitization of nociceptive nerve fibers are observed.

6. A study, titled Melatonin therapy in chronic pain syndrome, published in International Institute for Brain Health in Zagreb, Croatia concludes: …melatonin anti-nociceptive mechanisms have a complex structure. On one hand, being a chronobiotic melatonin restores circadian rhythm, increasing the adaptive capabilities of the body. On the other hand, the anxiolytic effect of melatonin leads to a decrease in pain through the decrease of anxiety and vegetative reactions. There is a direct analgesic effect of melatonin on the melatonin receptors in the areas of the brain responsible for pain perception and control, and on several neurotransmitter systems (GABA, opiod, L-arginine/NO pathway, etc.)

7.  A study titled Circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids, pressure pain thresholds, and nociplastic pain conditions, published in Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids in Sept 2022 concludes:  a higher Omega6/Omega3 ratio was associated with more pain conditions. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may promote a generalizes up-regulation of nociceptive processing.

8. A study titled Association of Vitamin B12, Vitamin D and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone with Fatigue and Neurologic Symptoms in Patients with Fibromyalgia,published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings; Innovations, Quality & Outcomes in Aug 2022 concluded:  fatigue and memory loss were more common in the B12 deficiency group

9. A study titled Neural changes after Emotional Freedom Techniques treatment for chronic pain sufferers, published in Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice in Nov 2022 concludes:  the study supports findings that EFT may have the ability to significantly reduce pain symptomology and associated psychological indicators. The neuroimaging results add by suggesting EFT also potentially affects connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral grey matter areas in the posterior cingulate cortex, and thalamus in chronic pain sufferers.

10. An article titled An anti-inflammatory and low fermentable oligo, di, and monosaccharides and polyols diet improved patient reported outcomes in fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial, published in Frontiers in Nutrition in Aug 2022 concludes:  an anti-inflammatory and low-FODMAP diet improved clinical features in patients with FM and may be useful as a complement to pharmacological therapy

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