Here is some of the information I recently shared in the December newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus. This newsletter is focused on the neck, neck pain, and whiplash research. If you would be interested in receiving my other newsletters, which include links to the studies as well as special offers and sales coupons, please head over to my contact page and sign up.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Video of neck and upper back muscles
STUDIES and ARTICLES
1. A study titled Instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization vs myofascial release therapy in treatment of neck pain: a randomized clinical trial, published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders in Jun 2023 concludes: This study showed insignificant differences between groups.
2. A study titled The Difference Between the Effects of McKenzie Neck Exercise and Contract-Relax Stretching on Neck Function in Onion Peelers with Myofascial Pain Syndrome, published in Health Sciences International Conference in Jun 2023 concludes: The McKenzie neck exercise intervention is better in improving the functional ability of the neck in onion peel workers with myofascial pain syndrome compared to the intervention contract-relax stretching.
3. A scoping review titled Defining Text Neck: A Scoping Review, published in European Spine Journal in Jul 2023 “text neck is regarded as a global epidemic Yet, there is a lack of consensus concerning the definition of text neck which challenges researchers and clinicians alike.” This study showed that posture is the defining characteristic of text neck in the academic literature. For research purposes, it seems that text neck is a habit of texting on the smartphone in a flexed neck position. Since there is no scientific evidence linking text neck with neck pain regardless of the definition used, adjectives like inappropriate or incorrect should be avoided when intended to qualify posture.
4. A study titled Effect of diaphragmatic breathing, respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics and conventional physiotherapy on chest expansion, pulmonary function and pain in patients with mechanical neck pain: A single group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental pilot study, published in Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies in Oct 2023 concludes: rehabilitation strategies should emphasize breathing exercises to improve the lung function and pain scores in addition to conventional physiotherapy in rehabilitation of mechanical neck pain patients.
5. A study titled Exercise therapy including cervical extensor muscles in individuals with neck pain: a systematic review, published in Clinical Rehabilitation in Jul 2023 concludes: cervical extensor muscle exercises may reduce neck pain and disability…
6. A study titled Efficacy of Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Management of Neck Pain: Systematic Review, published in The Healer in 2022 concludes: laser therapy decreases pain in participants with persistent neck discomfort shortly after therapy. Laser therapy is proven to be more effective than placebo therapy in relieving arm and pain and improving cervical strength and flexibility in participants with severe pain and increasing the quality of life when compared to patients treated with a placebo laser therapy.
7. A study, titled Effectiveness of McKenzie approach and segmental spinal stabilization exercises on neck pain in individuals with cervical postural syndrome: An experimental study, published in Journal of Education and Health Promotion in July 2023 concludes: McKenzie approach and segmental spinal stabilization exercises were effective on nick pain in individuals with cervical postural syndrome, but on comparing both techniques, McKenzie protocol is more beneficial than segmental spinal stabilization exercises.
8. A study titled Effect of Pilates exercise on balance and spinal curvature in subjects with upper cross syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial, published in Physiotherapy Quarterly of Wroclaw University in 2023 concludes: Pilates exercise program proved better than traditional physical therapy program in improving spinal curvature, balance, and function and reducing pain in UCS.
9. A study titled Pain reduction, physical performance, and psychological status compared between Hatha yoga and stretching exercise to treat sedentary office workers with mild/moderate neck/shoulder pain: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, published in Complementary Therapies in Medicine in Dec 2023 concludes:
• Both Hath yoga and stretching can decrease pain, anxiety/depression, and improve flexibility and neck functions.
• Hatha yoga was found to be non-inferior to stretching exercise
• Most of the participants reported being satisfied and most rated themselves as improved or much improved
• Concerning adverse events, Hatha yoga as well as stretching exercises was a safe regimen
• Hatha yoga can be an alternative or adjunct to stretching exercises for the treatment of mild to moderate MSK pain
10. A study titled Effect of Myofascial Release Therapy on Pain, Tissue Hardness, Range of Motion and Disability among patients with Text Neck Syndrome, published in Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology in 2023 concludes: Myofascial release has a better impact on treating pain, cervical range of motion, disability, and tissue hardness among patients with text neck syndrome.
Short video from Francois Albaranes Osteopathe of neck and upper back muscles during movements.
Here is some of the information I recently shared in the December newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus. This newsletter is focused on neck pain and upper cross syndrome. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, which include links to the studies as well as special offers and sales coupons, please head over to my contact page and sign up.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
STUDIES and ARTICLES
1. A study titled Is Kinesio Tape in combination with stretching and/or exercise more effective than traditional stretching and/or exercise at reducing pain and decreasing neck disability in adults with mechanical neck pain: A meta analysis, published in ProQuest Dissertations Publishing in 2021 concludes: the results of the meta-analysis favors the use of Kinesio tape as an adjunct to traditional stretching and/or strengthening exercises to decrease disability for individuals with mechanical neck pain..
2. A study titled The effects of combined Sternocleidomastoid muscle stretching and massage on pain, disability, endurance, kinesiophobia, and range of motion in individuals with chronic neck pain: A randomized, single-blind study, published in Musculoskeletal Science and Practice in Oct 2021 concludes:
Stretching and massage applied to the SCM can reduce pain and disability in chronic neck pain
Stretching and massage applied to the SCM can increase endurance in CNP
Stretching and massage applied to the SCM can increase some cervical ROM in CNP
3. A study titled Decompression of the greater Occipital nerve improves outcome in patients with chronic headache and neck pain—a retrospective cohort study, published in Accra Neurochirurgica in 2021 concludes: decompression of greater Occipital nerve may reduce neck pain and headache in selected patients with persistent headache neck pain, and clinical signs of Greater Occipital Nerve neuralgia.
4. A study titled Association of jaw dysfunction with upper cross syndrome in subjects with Temporomandibular Joint Disorder, published in RMJ in 2021 concludes: TMJ dysfunction is associated with upper cross syndrome. We found a variety of severity levels and associated prognostic indicators.
5. A study titled Immediate Effect of Strain Counterstrain Technique versus Muscle Energy Technique on Upper Trapezius Tenderness in Non-specific Neck Pain, published in International Journal of Science and Healthcare Research in Jun 2021 concludes: Both techniques are equally effective in treating pain, increasing lateral flexion and rotation range of motion, and improving pain pressure sensitivity.
6. A study titled Flexibility: The Forgotten Component of Fitness, published in Eastern Illinois University The Keep in 2021 concludes: Post-intervention showed significant changes in both the eccentric exercise and the static stretching group….concluded that eccentric exercise significantly increased flexibility and that there was no significant difference between eccentric exercise and static stretching in improving flexibility.
7. A study, titled Effects of dry needling of the Obliquus Capitis Inferior on sensorimotor control and cervical mobility in people with neck pain: A double-blind, randomized sham-controlled trial, published in Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy in 2021 concludes:
A single session of dry needling of the Obliquus Capitis Inferior reduces cervical joint position error in people with neck pain
Dry needling of the Obliquus Capitis Inferior does not have an effect on cervical movement sense or postural stability
Dry needling of the Obliquus Capitis Inferior increases upper cervical range of motion measured with the flexion rotation test
8. A study titled Effect of Pilates mat exercise on myoelectric activity of cervical muscles in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain: Randomized clinical trial, published in Egyptian Journal of Chemistry in Mar 2022, concludes: …statistically significant effect in both groups in treatment and time with favor to Pilates group. Pilates mat exercise combined with conventional therapy and conventional therapy alone are effective techniques for refining neck pain, function, and muscle amplitude in subjects with chronic mechanical neck pain, with further advantages shown in the experimental group that received the Pilates mat exercise treatment.
9. A study titled Comparative Study: Active Release technique versus Kinesio-Taping in chronic postural neck pain, published in Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology in 2021 concludes: the two groups showed significant effects on reducing neck pain, improving flexibility and range of motion after receiving the techniques. However, there was a significant difference following the application of Kinesio Taping Technique as compared to Active Release Technique in improving range of motion and reducing neck pain.
10. A study titled Immediate effects of electro-acupuncture versus laser acupuncture on pain and disability in women with chronic cervical myofascial pain syndrome, published in Journal of Modern Rehabilitation in 2022 concludes: Both EA and LA interventions may be effective in alleviating the symptoms of cervical myofascial pain syndrome, but the EA can be more effective in reducing neck pain and disability in women with cervical myofascial pain syndrome.
Here is some of the information I recently shared in a November newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus. This newsletter is focused on upper crossed syndrome, text neck, and neck pain. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, please head over to my contact page and sign up.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
STUDIES and ARTICLES
I receive a weekly update on anything published on the internet that includes information about upper crossed syndrome, whiplash, neck pain, and text neck. I try to glean the best of the information and provide a brief synopsis of the information. If you come across any information that you think would be good to share, please also feel free to pass that information along to: email@example.com
1. A study titled Immediate effect of dynamic cupping on pain in teachers with mechanical neck pain: An experimental study, published in Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupation Therapy Apr 2020 beginning on page 154, concludes there is a significant reduction in pain after the treatment with dynamic cupping (massage cupping) in teachers with mechanical neck pain, so dynamic cupping can be used clinically in patients with mechanical neck pain.
2. A study titled Comparison of cervical muscle activity and spinal curvatures in the sitting position with 3 different sloping seats published in Medicine in Jul 2020, concluded: a forward sloping seat surface was effective in maintaining a neutral alignment of the spine, and this decreased the cervical spine erector muscle activity. Based on this result, equipment and chair development of incline seats forward may improve posture and health, and prevent chronic pain.
3. A study, titled Effect of forward head and rounded shoulder posture on hand grip strength in asymptomatic young adults: a cross-sectional study, published in Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy in 2020 examined the effect of forward head and rounded shoulder posture on handgrip strength in asymptomatic young adults and explores the relationship between the craniovertebral angle and hand grip strength. The study demonstrated the handgrip strength was not affected by the posture in young adults. Additionally, the degree of the craniovertebral angle was not associated with an inverse effect on handgrip strength.
4. A study titled Efficacy of Kinesio taping and postural correction exercises on Levator Scapula electromyographic activities in mechanical cervical dysfunction: a randomized blinded clinical trial, published in Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics in Aug 2020, concludes application of both Kinesio tape and postural correction exercises combined can significantly reduce neck pain and normalize elevator scapula activities in patients with mechanical neck dysfunction more than the application of either intervention.
5. A study titled Motor control training of deep neck flexors with pressure biofeedback improves pain and disability in patients with neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis, published in Musculoskeletal Science and Practice in 2020 concludes: Motor control training of deep neck flexors with pressure biofeedback is an effective intervention for improving pain intensity and disability in patients with neck pain and preferable to strength-endurance training of cervical muscles.
6. A study titled A study on the effectiveness of scapular retraction exercises on forward head posture, published in Journal of Public Health Research & Development, Jun 2020, measured the craniovertebral angle before and after the 5 exercises were performed (seated row, elbow push back, scapular retraction activation, arm slides, and lower trap row) and concluded: there is a significant effect of scapular retraction exercises in reducing forward head posture.
7. A great article and video by Erik Dalton on occipital neuralgia headaches titled Neck Headache…..really? identifies some problems in the lower chain that might cause headaches, as well as describes the Brugger test procedure to determine the location of the problem. The video includes a good demonstration of a technique to correct O-A joint fixation.
8. A short video, found at PhysioOsteoBook gives a good animation of how forward posture when sitting can cause pain in the upper back and shoulder.
9. A video, titled Engage the Skyhook, by David Lauterstein provides a great review of the anatomy and kinesiology of the suboccipital muscles
10. A short video, Cervical Radiculopathy, by Spine-health, explains what types of pain can be triggered depending on where a nerve in the neck becomes irritated. This can be helpful when treating arm, shoulder, and hand pain.
Here is some of the information I recently shared in my July newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus. This month is focused on neck pain and injuries. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, please head over to my contact page and sign up.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
STUDIES and ARTICLES
I receive a weekly update on anything published anywhere on the internet that includes information about neck pain, injuries, and treatments. I try to glean the best of the information and provide a brief synopsis of the information. If you come across any information that you think would be good to share, please also feel free to pass that information along to: firstname.lastname@example.org
1. A study titled Pillow preferences of people with neck pain and known spinal degeneration: a pilot randomized controlled trial, published in European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Sep 2019, enrolled 117 people. Each tested latex pillows polyester pillows and their usual pillow for 28 days. The polyester pillow significantly increased side flexion on waking. The latex pillow did not perform well on any outcome measure.
2. An article titled Prevalence of neck pain among dentists, published in Drug Invention Today in Aug 2019 indicates that 56% of dentists surveyed suffered from neck pain for 10-15 years. The study concluded that the majority of dental practitioners acquired the development of cervical spondylosis.
3. A study titled Effect of isometric exercises on pain and disability in patients with chronic neck pain, published in the European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science in 2019, concluded: our study showed that physical therapy and neck isometric exercises and cervical joint opening exercises together with stretching exercises of back extensors were effective in chronic neck pain.
4. A study titled Effects of Thoracic Mobility Exercise on Cervicothoracic Function, Posture, and Pain in Individuals with Mechanical Neck Pain, published in Physical Therapy Korea in Sept 2019 focused on “individuals with mechanical neck pain showing biomechanical and neurophysiological changes, including cervical spine muscle weakness. As a result of deep muscle weakness, it causes stability disability and reduced upper thoracic spine mobility, which finally leads to functional movement restriction such as limited range of motion and dysfunction." Conclusion: Thoracic mobility exercises during 6 weeks might be an effective intervention to improve the functional level, posture feature, and QVAS pain rating for managing individuals with mechanical neck pain.
5. A study titled Short-term effects of kinesiology taping in the treatment of latent and active upper trapezius trigger points: two prospective, randomized, sham-controlled trials, published in Scientific Report in Oct 2019, concluded: results of this study do not support the use of the space correction KT technique to treat patients with latent or active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle.
6. A study titled Effect of Kinesiology taping and posture stabilizing exercise on pain, cranio-vertebral angle, proprioception in adults with forward head posture, published in the Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research in 2019, concluded: the application of posture setting exercise could decrease pain, proprioceptive error and increase craniovertebral angle on forward head posture.
7. A study, titled Neck muscle activation and head kinematics when using a smartphone while walking, published in Sage Journals in Nov 2019 evaluated the neck muscular load of smartphone use while walking. The results indicate two-handed texting while walking poses a larger muscular load to the neck extensor muscles compared to when conducting one-handed browsing while walking due to the larger head tilt angle.
8. A study titled Adding Temperomandibular joint treatments to routine physiotherapy for patients with non-specific chronic neck pain: a randomized clinical study, published in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies in April 2020 concluded: adding treatments of TMJ to routine neck physiotherapy can magnify the effect of the intervention, a significant change still in evidence at follow up.
9. A study titled The relationship between forward head posture and neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis, published at SpringerLink in Nov 2019 concluded: adults with neck pain show increased forward head posture when compared to asymptomatic adults and that forward head posture is significantly correlated with neck pain measures in adults and older adults. No association was found between forward head posture and most of neck pain measures in adolescents.
10. A study titled Effect of Dry Needling Injection and Kinesiotaping on Pain and Quality of Life in Patients with Mechanical Neck Pain, published in Pain Physician in Oct 2019, concluded: both methods were found to be effective on pain, mood, and quality of life and Kinesiotaping was found to be superior to dry needling in Mechanical neck pain in terms of increasing ROM and decreasing disability.
Here is some of the information I recently shared in my December newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus. This month is focused on upper crossed syndrome and text neck information. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, please head over to my contact page and sign up.
STUDIES, ARTICLES, and RESOURCES
I receive a weekly update on anything published anywhere on the internet that includes information about neck problems. I try to glean the best of the information and provide a brief synopsis of the information. If you come across any information that you think would be good to share, please also feel free to pass that information along to: email@example.com
1. A review article, titled Are manual therapies, passive physical modalities, or acupuncture effective for the management of patients with whiplash-associated disorders or neck pain and associated disorders? An update of the Bone and Joint Decade Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders by the OPTIMa collaboration, published in Spine J in Dec 2016, concluded: our review…suggests that mobilization, manipulation, and clinical massage are effective interventions for the management of neck pain. It also suggests that electroacupuncture, strain-counterstrain, relaxation massage, and some passive physical modalities (heat, cold, diathermy, hydrotherapy, and ultrasound) are not effective and should not be used to manage neck pain.
2. A study, published J Manipulative Physiol Ther in Oct 2016, titled The Treatment of Neck Pain-Associated Disorders and Whiplash-Associated Disorders: A Clinical Practice Guideline concludes: a multimodal approach including manual therapy, self-management advice, and exercise is an effective treatment strategy for both recent-onset and persistent neck pain.
3. A study published in J Bodyw Mov Ther in April 2017, titled The local and referred pain patterns of the longus colli muscle found: the pain referral pattern during deep massage and needling of the longus colli was primarily local, with referral to the ipsilateral ear and lateral to the ipsilateral eye. Some subjects reported pain on the contralateral side of the neck.
4. A study, Comparing Trigger Point Dry Needling and Manual Pressure Technique for the Management of Myofascial Neck/Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial published in J Manipulative Physiol Ther in Jan 2017, concluded: both treatment techniques lead to short-term and long-term treatment effects. Dry needling was found to be no more effective than MP in the treatment of myofascial neck/shoulder pain.
5. A study, Comparison of isometric cervical flexor and isometric cervical extensor system exercises on patients with neuromuscular imbalance and cervical crossed syndrome associated forward head posture published in Biomed Mater Eng in 2018, concluded: compelling, mechanistic evidence as to how Isometric cervical extensor system exercise is more beneficial for the restoration of neuromuscular imbalance than isometric cervical flexor system exercise in individuals with cervical crossed syndrome.
6. A study, Effectiveness of the Pilates Method in the Treatment of chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial published in Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation In Sept 2018, concludes: this trial demonstrated the effectiveness of the Pilates method for the treatment of chronic mechanical neck pain, resulting in improvement of pain, function, quality of life, and reduction of the use of analgesics.
7. A study published at ScienceDirect—Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, titled The effectiveness of kinesio taping on pain, range of motion and disability in patients with chronic neck pain: A randomized controlled study concluded: kinesio taping in addition to conventional physiotherapy provides additional benefits in chronic neck pain.
8. A study in International Journal of Basic and Applied Research titled Immediate effect of muscle energy technique for upper trapezius muscle on neck pain concludes: Statistically, muscle energy technique was found to be significantly effective in reducing pain and increasing cervical range of motion.
9. A study in Middle East J Rehabil Health Stud, Oct 2018, titled Muscles recruitment Pattern in People with and without Active Upper Trapezius myofascial trigger points in the standing posture concludes: latency in the onset of muscles activity and altered muscles recruitment patterns. The altered muscles recruitment pattern may lead to changes in motor control strategies and poor control of movement. Finally, these changes can cause a poor control of movement and increase the possibility of damage to the shoulder and cervical muscles in patients with an active myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius
10. A study, published in Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice and uploaded to ScienceDirect in advance of publication Feb 2019, titled The effects of qigong on neck pain: A systematic review concludes: Qigong might have a beneficial effect in some individuals with neck pain, although not necessarily more effective than therapeutic exercise.
Every month I send out a newsletter to subscribers with the most recent evidence and studies on specific bodywork topics. The newsletter may include summaries and links to studies and articles, videos that provide support information about exercises, new techniques or lectures. There are five main focuses for the newsletters and each newsletter is repeated twice a year. The seven main focuses for the newsletters are: Shoulder and rotator cuff, fibromyalgia, fascia and trigger points, upper cross and neck, cupping/lymphatic drainage, adult learning and business/ethics. If you would like to receive the newsletters with more complete information than is found in the excerpts, please sign up to receive the newsletter on my contact page.
1.In a brief article by Erik Dalton, he reminds us that “the occipitoatlantal (O-A) joint is the uppermost weight-bearing synovial joint in the body, it is the final junction for adapting to asymmetry and dysfunction from below. And because it is attached to the brain stem, which controls all basic body functions (including breathing and heartbeat), poor alignment may have widespread consequences.”
2. The Brugger Test can be used to determine if suboccipital spasm is the result of head and neck positioning or compensations below the neck. To perform the Brugger Test, use one hand to brace the client’s forehead and the index finger and thumb of your other hand to gently palpate and hold the area with the most knotty spasm. While holding this hand position, ask the client to sit. If the spasm decreases when the client sits, it suggests asymmetry in the lower body rather than head and neck compensation.
3. The website, The RMT Education Project, has a great article titled Massage Therapy and Post-Concussion Headaches which discusses the effectiveness of massage for these types of headaches. There is also a good short video explaining what happens with a concussion.
4. Whitney Lowe gives a very clear and concise explanation of the steps of The Slump Test and how to use it to determine where impingement might be created. The article can be found at Academy of Clinical Massage website.
5. A study, published in J Phys Ther Sci in 2013, titled Impact of longus colli muscle massage on the strength and endurance of the deep neck flexor muscle of adults, concluded: Massage of the longus colli muscle, which is the deep neck flexor, was shown to improve in strength and endurance, which are measures of neck stabilization.
6. Round Earth Publishing: Introduction to Head Pain offers some insight into common symptoms (other than muscular pain) that can be manifested through trigger points in muscles in the neck and face.
1. A review article, titled Neck Proprioception Shapes Body Orientation and Perception of Motion, in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, concluded: tonic neck-proprioceptive input may induce persistent influences on the subject’s mental representation of space. These plastic changes might adapt motion sensitiveness to lasting or permanent head positional or motor changes.
2. A study, published in Manual Therapy, Manual therapy for mechanical neck disorders: a systematic review concludes: for mechanical neck disorder with or without headaches, it appears that to be most beneficial, manual therapies should be done with exercise for improving pain and patient satisfaction. Manipulation and mobilization alone appear to be less effective.
3. A study, Stretching exercises vs manual therapy in treatment of chronic neck pain: a randomized controlled cross-over trial published in the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, concluded: Both stretching exercise and manual therapy considerably decreased neck pain and disability in women with non-specific neck pain.
4. A study, Effect of manual therapy and stretching on neck muscle strength and mobility in chronic neck pain, published in J Rehabil Med, concluded: Manual therapy and stretching were effective short-term treatments for reducing both spontaneous and strain-evoked pain in patients with chronic neck pain. It is possible that the decrease in pain reduced inhibition of the motor system and in part improved neck function. However, the changes in neck muscle strength were minor, showing that these treatments alone are not effective in improving muscle strength.
5. A study, Five-week outcomes from a dosing trial of therapeutic massage for chronic neck pain, published in Ann Fam Med, concluded: Multiple 60-minutes massages per week more effective than fewer or shorter session for individuals with chronic neck pain.
In the Alternative Health Care Arena
1.A study published on PlosOne, Efficacy of abdominal acupuncture for neck pain: a randomized controlled trial, concluded: Abdominal acupuncture is an effective alternative treatment for neck pain.
2. A study, Immediate Effects of high velocity low amplitude thrust manipulation of the thoracic spine on mechanical neck pain, disability and cervical range of motion, published in Int J Physiother Res in 2017 concluded: HVLA thrust of the thoracic spine was effective in immediately reducing mechanical neck pain and improving cervical range of motion.
3. A study in J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil in Sep 2017 titled Effectiveness of kinesio taping in addition to conventional rehabilitation treatment on pain, cervical range of motion and quality of life in patients with neck pain: a randomized controlled trial concluded: a protocol of manual therapy and physical exercises significantly improved pain and mobility in patients with neck pain. We obtained no evidence of additional benefits from the of application of KT in this population.
4. A study on Science Direct titled Effects of yogic exercise on nonspecific neck pain in university students concluded: the yoga group showed significantly decreased neck pain scores compared with those of the control group. These findings indicate that yogic exercises could reduce neck pain in university students.