Here is some of the information I recently shared in my October newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This month is focused on the fascia, myofascia and trigger point information. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


I receive a weekly update on anything published anywhere on the internet that includes information about fascia, myofascia and trigger points.  I try to glean the best of the information and provide a brief synopsis of the information. If you come across any information that you think would be good to share, please also feel free to pass that information along to:

1. A blog article, titled Fascia Acts as a Second Nervous System, by Dr. Russell Schierling, offers several important concepts:

2.  A study, Effects of Local Ischemic Compression on Upper Limb Latent Myofascial Trigger Points: A Study of Subjective Pain and Linear Motor Performance concluded: the results suggest the Ischemic Compression effectiveness on pain and Motor Performance impairment in subjects with Latent TrPs. However, the Motor Performance of these patients is only partially improved after the Ischemic compression application.

3.  An article, titled Myofascial Pain Syndrome: Looked through the Lens of 11 Cases Managed by Myofascial Trigger Point Massage Therapy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, published in International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Case Reports, concludes: Myofascial pain syndrome linked with latent or active myofascial trigger points developed due to repeated strains and injuries needs to be diagnosed by history and palpation method, system evaluation and laboratory investigations. Though several interventions are used in myofascial pain syndrome, myofascial trigger point massage therapy alone is found to be reasonably effective with excellent results.

4.  A study, titled The Effect of Self-Myofascial release using tennis ball on pain in individuals with piriformis trigger points, published in International Journal of Basic and Applied Research, concludes: Subjects were asked to take small circular movements by sitting on a tennis ball under the buttocks for 60 seconds. The study concluded that Self-Myofascial Release using tennis ball helps in reducing pain and increasing the pain pressure threshold providing a simple yet effective alternative for piriformis trigger point pain.

5.  An abstract submitted for publication, titled AB0910 Effective restoring Motion and Effective Treatment of Myofascial and Neuropathic Low Back Pain by Targeted Dry Needling Using Ultrasound Guidance in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, concludes: Dry needling under ultrasound guidance effectively reduce myofascial pain ameliorate symptoms of neuropathy and local muscle hypo motility in low back pain.

6.  A study, titled Effects of Self-myofascial release using foam roller on range of motion and morphological changes in muscle: A crossover study, published in J Strength Cond Res. in May 2019, concludes: Self-myofascial release using foam roller is effective in improving range of motion in at least some conditions. However, its mechanism is still unclear.We hypothesized that the Foam Rolling intervention may increase ROM because of changes in fascicle length and aponeurosis displacement. Although ROM of both dorsiflexion and plantar flexion increased significantly after the Foam Rolling intervention (p<0,01), no significant differences were found in fascicle length and aponeurosis displacement before and after the foam rolling intervention.

7.  A case study, titled The effectiveness of positional release therapy in myofascial trigger points associated with recurrent lateral ankle sprain—a case study, published in World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research in Apr 2019, concludes: There was a significant decrease in the pain symptoms observed after the treatment, with the significant increase in Active ROM. It is concluded that Positional Release Therapy may be an effective treatment for pain and increase in Active ROM and pain decreased caused by trigger point due to recurrent lateral ankle sprain. (Peroneous muscles)

8.  An study titled, A study to compare the effect of muscle energy technique and positional release technique on pain and cervical ROM in patients with chronic upper trapezitis, published in International’Journal of Scientific Research, concludes: Muscle energy technique is an effective option in the treatment of chronic upper trapezitis.

9.  A study titled A comparative study to find out the immediate effect of occipital muscle inhibition and static hamstring stretching on hamstring tightness in young adults—an experimental study, published in International Journal of Scientific Research in May 2019, concludes: Both the techniques showed marked improvement in the outcome measure, but the occipital muscle inhibition is more effective for the hamstring tightness and it is easy to perform for the participants and it was observed that the effect was persistent for longer time.

• A video titled Vancouver Fascia Congress Shoulder study: Myofascial Trigger point Release by Christopher Gordon, shows the results of a study of myofascial trigger point release on the elasticity and sensitization of the tissue.

Anatomy, Head and Neck, Deep Cervical Neck Fascia by Paul Sutcliffe and Savita Lasrado. Update Jun 2019 and found at StatPearls.

Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis, Femoral Triangle by Hayden Basinger and Jeffery P. Hogg. Update April 2091 and found at StatPearls

Here is some of the information I recently shared in my October newsletter. Each newsletter has a specific focus.  This month is focused on fascia, myofascia and trigger point information. If you would be interested in receiving my newsletters, please head over to my contact page and sign up.


I receive a weekly update on anything published anywhere on the internet that includes information about fascia, myofascia and trigger points.  I try to glean the best of the information and provide a brief synopsis of the information. If you come across any information that you think would be good to share, please also feel free to pass that information along to:

1.  An article, titled Three-dimensional mathematical model for deformation of human fascia in manual therapy by Chaudhry, Schleip, et al., and published in J AM Osteopath Assoc in 2008 concludes: the three-dimensional model’s equations revealed that very large forces, outside the normal physiologic range, are required to produce even 1% compression and 1% shear in fascia lata and plantar fascia. Such large forces are not required to produce substantial compression and shear in superficial nasal fascia, however. The palpable sensations of tissue release that are often reported by osteopathic physicians and other manual therapists cannot be due to deformations produced in the firm tissues of plantar fascia and fascia lata.

2.  An informative article, written by Kimberlie Landers of Swedish Medical Center, titled Fascia: The Mysterious Tissue-N2 Physical Therapy offers an in-depth and understandable review of the tissue. It discusses: What is fascia, how can it relate to or cause pain, and what can be done about dense fascia, including kinesio-taping, Graston, cupping, skin rolling, and a technique called The Stecco Method of Fascia Manipulation, which revolves around “Centers of Coordination”. 

3.  An article, written by the late Leon Chaitow and published in 2009 in Massage Today, titled Research in Water and Fascia: Micro-tornadoes, hydrogenated diamonds and nanocrystals references some information from previous articles:

In this article, Mr. Chaitow discusses an article by Dr. Martin Grumble about the characteristics of water in the body and the creation of nanocrystals involved in protein folding.

4.  An article by Simeon Niel Asher, titled Understanding Trigger Points-Embryological Development of Fascia provides an overview of the embryological origin of connective tissues (which) may provide some insights into the formation and location of trigger points. 

5.  An article, Defining the fascial system published at the RMT Education Project, defines fascia as: …a sheath, a sheet, or any other dissectible aggregations of connective tissue that forms beneath the skin to attach, enclose, and separate muscles and other internal organs.  It also defines the fascial system: consists of the three-dimensional continuum of soft, collagen-containing, loose and dense fibrous connective tissues that permeate the body…

6.  An article by Ross Turchaninov and Boris Prilutsky, published at Science of Massage Institute, titled Ischemic Compression: To Be or Not to Be? Science of Trigger Point Therapy offers scientific support to explain the role of ischemic compression in increasing the blood supply to muscle and trigger point areas

7.  A very long article by Paul Ingraham published in Pain Science titled Trigger Point Doubts: a thorough review of the problems with the science of ‘muscle knots’ and myofascial pain syndrome discusses the sketchy science and dogma around the concept of trigger points.

8. A post by Dr. Leon Chaitow, published on LinkedIn on Dec 10, 2016, titled Telocytes: recently identified connective tissue cells summarizes the following information: 

9.  A brief discussion on the RMTEducation page, titled The effect of trigger point compression for acute low back pain reviews the results of a study from Japan: From a clinical perspective, myofascial trigger points certainly describe a phenomenon—aching spots, that seem to at least be partially helped by massage. The issue is that there is still uncertainty on the subject of trigger points (eg. what they are and the subjective nature of their identification). To help provide some insight and perspective for therapists, …a study out of Japan that looks at the effects of compression at myofascial trigger points in patients with acute low back pain—Nakamoto, K., Bit, I., Urakawa, S., Sakai, S., Kigawa, M., Ono, T., Nishijo, H. (2015) Effects of compression at myofascial trigger points in patients with acute low back pain: randomized controlled trial. Our J Pain 10, 1186-1196.

10.  An article, published in the European Journal of Histochemistry, and summarized on the fascial fitness Australia site shows: the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptors in fascial fibroblasts suggests their possible role in modulation of fascial pain. The fascial pain is usually related to a fascial inflammation and/or a fascial fibrosis, and both could be related to an alteration of the endocannabinoid system. …The authors also hypothesized a possibility that the endocannabinoid system inside the deep fasciae is stimulated during manipulative treatments and exercises.





Studies & Articles

  1. Fascial Plasticity - A New Neurobiological Explanation by Robert Schleip from 2003. Abstract:
    1. Part 1: In myofascial manipulation an immediate tissue release is often felt under the working hand. This amazing feature has traditionally been attributed to mechanical properties of the connective tissue. Yet studies have shown that either much stronger forces or longer durations would be required for a permanent viscoelastic deformation of fascia. fascia nevertheless is densely innervated by mechanoreceptors which are responsive to manual pressure. Stimulation of these sensory receptors has been shown o lead to a lowering of sympathetic bonus as well as a change in local tissue viscosity. Fascia and the autonomic nervous system appear to be intimately connected.
    2. Part 2: Stimulation of fascial mechanoreceptors can trigger viscosity changes in the ground substance. The discovery and implications of the existence of fascial smooth muscle cells are of special interest in relation to fibromyalgia, amongst other conditions. An attitudinal shift is suggested, from a mechanical body concept towards a cybernetic model, in which the practitioner’s intervention are seen as stimulation for self-regulatory processes within the client’s organism.
  1. Article: "Effects of myofascial release leg pull and sagittal plane isometric contract-relax techniques on passive straight-leg raise angle", by Hante WP & chandler SD. Published in J Orthop Sport Phys Ther in 1994

  2. An abstract, "Myofascial release provides symptomatic relief from chest wall tenderness occasionally seen following lumpectomy and radiation in breast cancer patients" by JS Crawford, J Simpson and P Crawford published in Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 1996.

  3. Judith O’Connel, published an article in Technique in Orthopedics, March 2003 titled "Bioelectric Responsiveness of Fascia: A Model for Understanding the Effects of Manipulation" summarizes: Fascia, the largest component of white fibrous tissue, contains linear sheets of collagen found in superficial, deep, and subserous layers. Collagen is piezoelectric, functioning as a transducer of mechanical and electrical energy. Electrical impulses are generated int eh collagen by compressive and distraction forces within the musculoskeletal system. These impulses trigger a cascade of cellular, biomechanical, natural, and extracellular events as the body adapts to external stress.

  4. Article, "Effectiveness of Myofascial release in Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis: A RCT" by Suman Kuhar, Khatri Subhash, Jeba Chitra published in 2007 in the Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupation Therapy.

  5. An article in the J Manipulative Physiol Ther in 2008, "Effects of myofascial release after high-intensity exercise: a randomized clinical trial", by M Arroyo-Morales, N Olea, M Martinez, C Moreno-Lorenzo, L Diaz-Rodriguez, & A Hidalgo-Lozano

  6. The full-text article, "Psychophysiological effects of massage-myofascial release after exercise: a randomized sham-controlled study", by Manuel Arroyo-Morales, et. al and published in The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine in 2008

  7. "Fascial Manipulation for chronic specific low back pain; a single-blinded randomized controlled trial" from 2015

  8. An article by Benjamin Asher, Complementary and Integrative Treatments: The Voice, published in 2013 concluded: “Myofascial release and laryngeal massage are effective in improving vocal function and helping minimize throat pain.”

  9. An article in Musculoskelet Sci Pract 2017, titled "Mechanical deformation of posterior thoracolumbar fascia after myofascial release in healthy men: A study of dynamic ultrasound imaging"

Tidbits, Updates and Resources


  1. Donna Bagels presents a 27-minute video showing myofascial length test of the superficial front fascia (extensor halluces longus/brevis)

  2. How to relieve foot pain using myofascial release by ACEFitness, 6:31 minutes.


  1. A brief animated review of the body by GetBodySmart for the tensor fascia lata is a helpful review of origin, insertion and action.

  2. An excellent description of fascia of the abdomen and pelvis, by G. G. Gallaudet can be found at

  3. An article in Cancer Res 2016, Connecting (T)issues: How Research in Fascia Biology Can Impact Integrative Oncology, states “Recent advances in cancer biology are underscoring the importance of connective tissue in the local tumor environment. Inflammation and fibrosis are well-recognized contributors to cancer, and connective tissue stiffness is emerging as a driving factor in tumor growth. Physical-based therapies have been shown to reduce connective tissue inflammation and fibrosis and thus may have direct beneficial effects on cancer spreading and metastasis. Meanwhile, there is currently little knowledge on potential risks of applying mechanical forces in the vicinity of tumors.”

  4. An article in J Craniofac Surg 2017 titled Anatomy of the Platysma Muscle is an excellent quick review.


Below is a listing of some thesis/dissertations that may be accessed through professional libraries




Studies & Articles

  1. Article: Understanding Fascia: What It Is + Why You Should Care by Melissa Putt
  2. A literature review conducted at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: What the Science Really Says: Self-Myofascial Release

  3. Study published in the European Journal of Pain in Sept 2015 titled Effects of Compression at Myofascial trigger points in patients with acute low back pain: A randomized controlled trial

  4. Article, published in Rheumatology in March 2015, titled A critical evaluation of the trigger point phenomenon

  5. Article published in the Journal of Bodywork Movement Therapies in Jan 2015, titled Effectiveness of myofascial release: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

  6. Article, published in the Clinical Journal of Pain in Sep 1994 titled Referred pain of peripheral nerve origin: an alternative to the “myofascial pain” construct

  7. An article published in Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies in Jul 2011 titled Pandiculation: nature’s way of maintaining the functional integrity of the myofascial system?

  8. Article, published in Current Pain Headache report Oct 2012, titled Etiology of Myofascial Trigger Points

Tidbits, Updates and Resources


  1. Thomas Myers—fascia 101
  2. Japp Van Der Wal—Fascia: Architecture of connective tissue
  3. Vancouver Fascia Congress 2012 – Assessment of Myofascial Trigger Point Release with a novel Myometer in addition to an algometer


  1. Article in Anatomy Science International published in Oct 2015, reviews the purpose of the popliteal fascia and its role in popliteal fossa knee pain.
  2. Article in Okajimas Folia Anatomy Japan, Anatomical structure of the subcutaneous tissue on the anterior surface of human thigh
  3. Article in Journal of Anatomy in Mar 2016, titled Intermuscular force transmission along myofascial chains: a systematic review


An article in Journal of Hand Therapies, Jan-Mar 2016, titled Kinesio Taping and manual pressure release: short-term effects in subjects witih myofascial trigger points

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